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Volume 3 Number 4

Harry & Rosemary Wong remind us, "Leaders lead and they lead by caring enough about the success of their teachers that they will roll up their sleeves and model instructional leadership."...
Effective Teaching by Harry & Rosemary Wong
Promoting Learning by Marv Marshall
4 Blocks by Cheryl Sigmon
Ask the School Psychologist by Beth Bruno
Online Classrooms by Leslie Bowman
The Eclectic Teacher by Ginny Hoover
The Busy Educator's Monthly Five (5 Sites for Busy Educators) by Marjan Glavac
Ask the Literacy Teacher by Leigh Hall
Visual Impairments by Dave Melanson
Instant Ideas for Busy Teachers by Barbara Gruber and Sue Gruber
Reflecting Upon Read Across America
Earth Day Compilation
The World in Lights
Take a Seat at the Bottom of the Class
Starting Children on Science
Tips for teachers being bullied!
Mr. Choose-A-Chart
Teaching Perseverance Through Adversity-A History Lesson
It's An Early Spring!
Memo to Staff: Our Computer System Crashed-We Have No 'Backups'-You're Not Getting Paid for a Month!
Keep Your Online Community Alive!
Curricular Science the 'Curry' way!
Geography Awareness
Principal of the Year Ray Mellberg
eBook Technology
Respect Means...
Creative Uses for Digital Cameras in the Classroom
Teaching Gayle to Read (Part 4)
Young Lawyers Ementoring Magnet Students
The Welcome Mat of a High School On-Line Community
Plato Lives...
The Asphalt Classroom
26 Teaching Tips for the Dog Days
Using Storytelling in the Classroom
Recapturing the Courage to Teach
To Leave No Child Behind
If you say you CAN'T, it means you WON'T
Something Nice a Student Did Yesterday...
When Your Child Comes Home Messy
Praise vs. Encouragement
People Don't Play...
Apple Seeds
Special Days This Month
Poem - Song of a Second April
The Lighter Side of Teaching
  • YENDOR'S Top Ten
  • Culprit Management
  • Schoolies
  • Woodhead
  • Handy Teacher Recipes
    Classroom Crafts
    Help Wanted - Teaching Jobs
    "Why Do We Have Night" from the Lesson Bank
    Upcoming Ed Conferences
    Letters to the Editor
    The School Web Page: A Vehicle for Innovation
    Eighth Emerson Prizes Awarded in Boston
    Student Nanoexperiments Will Help Future Astronauts on Mars
    The 11th Annual National Institute for Early Childhood Professional
    International Conference on Computers in Education
    SESSIONS ANNOUNCED: Congress in the Classroom 2002
    Teacher Network United States Mint
    DEADLINE: Civic Education Grants
    Gazette Home Delivery:

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    #837 - Why Do We Have Night

    Posted by Celeste Goetz Arnotti, Marietta, GA, USA

    Subject: Science
    Level: Elementary, 2nd Grade
    Materials Required: 1 USA map,1 World globe,3 toothpicks per student,1 flashlights per child, apples, box of raisins
    Activity Time: 25 minutes
    Concepts Taught: The Earth rotates around the sun and on its axis

    Like an astrononmer, we are going to make a model of the sun and Earth to help explain why there is night. Models are also useful when something is happening too fast or too slowly for you to observe. We can't take a trip out into space to observe how the sun and Earth are moving. But you know that the sun in the source of light for day. With models, you can explore what the sun and Earth do to cause day and night.

    Before beginning this science lesson you may want to read, The Truth About the Moon, by Clayton Bess. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co 1983 (Juv); ISBN: 0395345510. Have the students look and listen for all the answers to the character Sumu's questions regarding the moon. Ask the students what they might say to Sumu if he asked them about the moon. Later after studying this lesson and reading current facts about the moon, Earth and sun compare the information.

    The study of the solar system is an essential topic in todays curriculum. Space travel, discoveries and experiments are comment talk on the news, Public television and radio. Todays students have the need to be informed thinkers with update vocabulary. This hands on activity will provide them with the opportunity to experience Earth's rotations.

    The purpose of this lesson is to provide the students with a fun, creative way to discover how the Earth moves. This will help children understand why there is day and night. It can also create curiosity to further study the solar system and eclipses!


    • a world Globe and a map of the USA
    • one flashlight per group of 4 students
    • 3 toothpicks per student
    • box of raisins
    • one apple per student
    • two helpful class parents for supervision would be great!
    • box of napkins
    • soap and water (sink)


    1. To be able to locate the state where we live on the map of the USA.
    2. To be able to locate the USA on the world globe.
    3. To introduce basic vocabulary words: Earth, moon, sun, day, night, rotate, spin, challenge word: eclipse.
    4. To allow the student to observe then predict the outcome of the experiment.
    5. To allow the student to gather and record data from the experiment.
    6. To be able to apply information gathered and interpret data.
    7. To be able to demonstrate the interpreted data.
    8. To draw pictures about the experiment.
    9. To encourage further reading about the solar system.


    1. Gather the students comfortably around the display of the globe and map. Show them where the state the school/home is in. Mark this spot with a glued raisin.
    2. Ask if any one can then find this state on the globe. Mark this spot with a removable sticker. Discuss how the globe is our Earth. Explain how our Earth is rotating out in space.Ask the students to tell you about the moon.
    3. Read the story, "The Truth about the Moon". Then a brief discussion. Write answers on a chart paper to save for later.
    4. Divide the class into small groups by giving each child a star shape, or a moon shape or a sun shape or an Earth shape paper. This will help the children to quickly move into their correct group. Distribute the apples, toothpicks, raisins, napkins and flashlights to each of the four groups.
    5. Demonstrate how to insert the toothpicks on the top and bottom of apples. Then show how to stick the raisin onto the side of the apple.Explain that the raisin represents the school/home just as the raisin did on the map of the USA.
    6. Encourage helping parents to move about assisting the children with the toothpicks.
    7. Demonstrate how the flashlight acts much like the sun does towards the Earth.
    8. Demonstrate how when the light shines on one side of the apple this represents day.
    9. Demonstrate how when the light is shining on one side the other side is dark representing night.
    10. Rotate the apple so the raisin is in the light and then moves to the dark side. Ask students to recite out loud when they think the raisin is in day or night.


    1. Stick the toothpick just far enough into the apple so you can use it as a handle.
    2. With another toothpick stick one raisin onto the side of the apple. The apple will be Earth in your model. The flashlight will be the sun in your model.
    3. Hold the flashlight so that the light shines on one side of the apple. If the flashlight is the sun and the apple is the Earth, would it be day or night at the raisin? Is it day or night on the other side of the apple?
    4. With your group, think of two different ways to make day and night at the raisin. Record your ideas on your papers.


    1. Imagine that you are standing on the raisin that is your school/home. How does the sun's position seem to change from where you are on the dot as you make night happen in each model?
    2. Compare the ideas from your group to those of another group. Which one explains how we get night?
    3. Discuss with your group what the moon does in space. Record your answers by drawing a picture on your papers.
    4. Discuss what you think an eclipse is and what it looks like. Draw your answers on you paper.
    5. Save your recordings in a science folder for later experiments.
    6. Everyone wash your hands and your apples. Remove toothpicks and safely throw them in trash. Spread out your napkin and enjoy eating your apple and raisins.


    1. Observe students as they participate during the discussion time at the map/globe display. Did they maintain eye contact during discussion. Monitor the amount of student discussion. Did they show interest and energy for the topic?
    2. Could the students easily identify the state on the map? The state on the globe?
    3. How many students participated in discussion.
    4. Could students retell the story of Summa?
    5. Can the student recall specific vocabulary words?
    6. Could student demonstrate the experiment within the group?
    7. Did the student discuss the experiment with other groups?
    8. Was artwork factual?
    9. Was student able to make judgments on extension material?
    10. Could retell each part of experiment?
    11. Able to interpret ideas in own words?
    12. Could recognize symbols, state shapes etc...
    13. Able to problem solve within the group?
    14. Could explain cause and effect of light in regards to day or night?
    15. Uses lessons concepts to support their own opinions or views about eclipses?

    Introduce the map of the solar system. Discuss where Earth is placed within the other planets. Sing the song "There are Nine Lil' Planets "Round the Sun", sung to the tune of "She'll Be Coming 'Round the Mountain When She Comes". Count the planets and say their names, write their names on the chalkboard. Circle the first letter of each planet. 'M,V,E,M,J,S,U,S,P,' An easy way to remember the placement of the planets: My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Seven Pizzas. Other great books to read are: The Sun, by Seymour Simon, My Place in Space, by Robin and Sally Hirst, and The Orphan Boy by Tololwa M. Mollel.

    This lesson would fit nicely within the Changing of the seasons Science unit, Space unit, Mother Earth Science unit, Where we live, Social Studies unit. Counting rotations of the Earth could be reinforced during a Math unit. Create a small classroom library by allowing each student to display their folders for others to read and enjoy. Video tape this lesson and review the tape later in the Science Unit. Instead of drawing their pictures and ideas, the students may choose to record their answers on a tape recorder. A field trip to a local Science Department. Contact a Local Forest ranger and ask her to explain what happens in the parks at night and day.


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