|Teachers.Net Gazette Vol.5 No.6||June 2008|
|Cover Story by Alfie Kohn|
|Atrocious Advice from "Supernanny"|
|Behaviorism is as American as rewarding children with apple pie… but for how long does it work, and at what cost?|
|Harry & Rosemary Wong: Effective Teaching|
|Eight Year Summary of Articles, 2000 to 2008|
|»||Textmapping: Where Old Becomes NewCheryl Sigmon|
|»||Administrative BroadwayTodd R. Nelson|
|»||The Busy Educator's Monthly FiveMarjan Glavac|
|»||Easy Ideas to Wrap up the YearSue Gruber|
|»||Committees: Make Them More ProductiveHal Portner|
|»||Helping Children Cope After DisasterLeah Davies|
|»||The Dance of the Honeybee|
|»||June 2008 Writing Prompts|
|»||Your School's Mission in a Sound Bite|
|»||The Medicalizing of Education|
|»||I Used to Educate Students; Now I Prepare Them… for The Test|
|»||A Great Model Of Differentiation|
|»||Live Chat with Adora Svitak|
|»||Making the Most of Summer To Prepare for the New School Year|
|»||Printable Worksheets & Teaching Aids|
|»||Candles of Inspiration: June 2008|
|»||Teachers.Net Craft Favorite: Father's Day Project|
|»||Featured Lessons, Resources and Theme Activities: June 2008|
|»||Video Bytes: The human cost of war, in song, Literacy centers and more...|
|»||Today Is... Daily Commemoration for June 2008|
|»||Live on Teachers.Net: June 2008|
|»||The Lighter Side of Teaching|
|»||Apple Seeds: Inspiring Quotes for Teachers|
|»||What are some things you absolutely DO NOT miss about teaching?|
|»||How Many Years Did It Take You to Get It Together?|
|»||Newsdesk: Events & Opportunities for Teachers|
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The Medicalizing of Education
Medication is necessary to treat illnesses and sometimes to keep us alive. But for inattentive and out-of-control students, are we turning too quickly to medication instead of expecting individual accountability and self-control?
|by James Burns
New contributor to the Gazette
June 1, 2008
I don't think there is anyone in society today that doesn't take medication for something - high blood pressure, diabetes, prostate problems, thyroid dysfunction, ulcers, or depression, just to name a few. For sure, medication is something that is needed by many just to stay alive.
Children have always needed medication for childhood illnesses and some childhood diseases. It is only within the last 20 years that we have seen school aged children being medicated with psychotropic drugs, sometimes even as early as preschool. About 15 years ago, when I was a vice-principal of a school for conduct disordered kids, I was on the phone with a doctor who was treating one of my students. I mentioned to the doctor that the student was hyperactive. He informed me that I was using the wrong terminology, that she wasn't hyperactive, but that she had ADHD. During our discussion, the doctor further explained that this student's ADHD was the reason why she had such poor impulse control, and that she needed medication to help control her. In my opinion, poor parenting and the lack of good old fashioned discipline have played a huge part in the very popular current trend in society - and especially in education - where everyone, including school psychologists, social workers, guidance counselors, administrators, and teachers take the easy way out, looking for a quick fix to deal with students who in days gone by would have been considered disrespectful and irresponsible, not mentally ill.
Society today has raised its tolerance for deviance. This same attitude has found its way into education and has resulted in lower expectations for student achievement and behavior. Years ago if one person burned the American flag it was an illegal act and the guilty person or group was held accountable with the appropriate societal consequences imposed. But, what happens if five thousand people burn the flag and the jails aren't big enough to hold them? You either build bigger prisons, or make it legal to burn the flag.
When I was a student in school there were students who behaved in a disrespectful and irresponsible manner. These students were few and far between, and were dealt with accordingly. What happens when the number of students who are disrespectful, irresponsible, violent, bullying, and are involved in illegal acts, starts to rise? A condition such as ADHD becomes the excuse for the deviant behavior.
ADHD was determined to be a mental illness by vote of the American Psychiatric Association members at their annual meeting in 1987, and the new definition was then added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Children (and increasing adults) who exhibit behaviors such as inattention, distractibility, trouble in following directions, a tendency to lose things, and difficulty awaiting their turn to speak or participate in activities are now seen as victims of ADHD. (The Politics of Deviance, 2002)
In the past these behaviors were seen as achievement-ability discrepancies, or just unruly behavior. Now, parents and educators seem to be relieved that the problems that exist with behaviors such as disrespect, irresponsibility in the home and in school today can now be looked at as a type of mental illness that requires a treatment plan, rather than individual accountability and self control.
The medical industry has developed drugs that have improved the quality of life for millions of people. In reality, if some of these drugs didn't exist, some people would not be alive today. I am a perfect example. I take high blood pressure medication to normalize blood pressure that what would otherwise be so high I would have had a stroke. Taking this medication doesn't make me any less responsible for my own health. I still have to walk, watch my diet, and not smoke. Because medication is so widely used in education, people often cite the decision of some parents not to medicate their children as the reason why a kid's behavior is out of control.
In my own experience I have often called parents to discuss their child's unacceptable behavior and have been told that the child hadn't taken his medication. The idea that the failure to take medication can be used as an excuse for deviance removes any form of responsibility from the individual for the behavior. I know that I am responsible for my own health with or without medication. Students are responsible for their own behavior and cannot use medication or the lack of it to get off the hook when confronted with the consequences of their lack of self-control.
Parents and educators today see mental illness as an out for them. In fact many parents actually request the diagnosis of mental illness for their children. In others words, the parent is saying, it's not me as a parent, but rather biologically there is something wrong with my kid. There is no stigma attached to the label mental illness. Many parents as well as educators are convinced that their children who are diagnosed with some sort of mental illness are actually smarter, brighter, and more creative than kids who do behave, do pay attention in class, and who are responsible for their actions.
It almost becomes comforting for parents and educators to believe that it is not their parenting or behavior management techniques that may have caused the child's problem. They are convinced that the inappropriate or even deviant behavior that they have been observing and tolerating is a result of faulty wiring in the child's head which led him to throw tantrums, curse his teacher or parents out, bully other kids, and engage in violent behavior.
Medicalizing education sends the wrong message to parents, teachers and administrators, that a students' poor academic performance or their lack of self control can be clinically diagnosed and eliminated through the use of psychotropic medication. A model focusing on respect, responsibility, and emotional maturity is the only response to the medication model that excuses behaviors and avoids relevant consequences that will provide permanent help, not temporary relief.